Category Archives: Weed

More experiments with Kermadec seaweed

Moving away from the pastiche of  “classic still life”, I have been exploring shooting the Kermadec seaweed, Pterocladiella in streams of bubbles from my previous experiments for the new whale migration inspired series.  Mixed results.

I also tried a very “straight” shot on with the seaweed in a tiny specimen bottle on white. Another reference to the protection offered the Kermadecs with the announcement of the Kermadec Ocean Sanctuary. 


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More Kermadec Seaweed


A new set of raw shots from #projectweed studio.

Once again I am working with Pterocladiella – the only seaweed found in both the Kermadecs and Wellington.

I have taken these shots with the forthcoming Kermadec: Discoveries and Connections Exhibition in Wellington in mind. They are a slight departure from the rest of the “Weed” project because they are not shot underwater. Instead the algae is suspended in a small vial of seawater – A reference to scientific investigation of the region and the protection afforded the Kermedecs by the recently announced Kermadec Marine Sanctuary.

I love the the direct connection between the Kermadecs and Wellington it creates, as well as the reframing of seaweed into a fresh context.

The Kermadec: Discoveries and Connections Exhibition and science symposium will be at the Academy of Fine Arts Gallery in Wellington in April.

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Behind the scenes on #projectweed

There have been three main setups for the ‘Weed’ project to date. Each with very different pros and cons so I would not say anyone was the most successful.

The big tank:


A 900 litre monster tank weighing close to one tonne when full. It’s size and location (at Massey University) makes it impractical to regularly use salt water which mean only the most robust seaweed can go in it. Fantastic for large algae like Kelp – see earlier post. The seaweed I shoot in this tank is usually taken off the beach so I am not killing any coming fresh from the sea.

In the setup shown in this photo it was “crazy upside-down day” in the studio as I tried hanging the seaweed, and therefore the entire set, upside down in an effort to get the weed to hang as I wanted. Mixed success – I am not happy with this shot at all but lots of learnings. The tank is setup so I can light directly from below. I also installed a modified garden irrigation hose in the base of the tank to create movement in the tank.

The small tank:


Relocated to my garden shed for summer this was the tank I originally used for proof-of-concept but now is perfect for macro shots of smaller seaweed.

It’s size and being at the ‘home studio’ by the sea allows it to be filled with fresh seawater which is much better for the algae and allows me to include small animals in the shot. After shooting the seaweed is returned back to the sea asap.

As you can see in this shot the sets may be small (those white bottles are only about 70mm high) but the can also be quite complex with textured/painted backgrounds diffusers, masks, and multiple flash units usually fitted with home-made snoots, barn-doors and other gobos. The average shoot in the project uses 3 or 4 flashes.


This is a typical example of the complexity of the lighting rigs. A snooted flash above, a very low-power diffused keylight to the side and a barn-doored rear flash behind shooting directly behind the bottle through a large diffuser. You can see that the set can be made of pretty humble materials – in this case the bottle is sitting on a cheap baking dish from The Warehouse.

The copy-camera rig:


The latest experiments have used a modified copy-camera stand to allow me to shoot straight down through layers of clear acrylic trays. I made a base (looks a bit like a Mondrian chair) to hold layer of trays and allow me to light things from all angles.

This rig allows the use of seawater and lets me arrange the algae relatively precisely but reflections are the enemy in this setup so I use black fabric all over the place.

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Latest image from #projectweed


One of my favourite shots from the seaweed project so far. It is less along the line of the classic still life genre I intended to follow but more where I think the project will evolve toward. It features one of my favorite algae Cystophora with it’s distinctive zig-zag branches and this one is hosting a few anemone (which is pretty common on this species)

This photo was taken using the latest rig in the studio – looking straight down through layers of shallow clear trays of seawater. Lit from below and the side.

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#projectweed happy accidents


Sometimes random shit happens and looks cool. While I was setting up for a new photo for #projectweed, I became impatient waiting for a cheap glass vase I had spray painted to dry, and put it into water … resulting in traces of paint floating off and me swearing. Then saw the paint swirling on the surface so quickly shoot it … because it looked cool. Do you need any other reason?

In this setup you are actually looking straight down through layers of clear acrylic trays filled with water. The pro vases in the background ar bolted onto a vertical panel that here looks like the ‘floor’. Note some of the freaky distortion at the base of the foreground vase as the light bends going through the water.

Handy seaweed facts


South coast Wellington rockpool

Next time you’re asked a seaweed question in a pub quiz you will thank me for this post.

But don’t get too carried away with you’re praise of my knowledge because the world of seaweed is complex with thousands of species.  Below is an overview of a few things I have picked up during the project. If you really want to get the full story I recommend reading some of the books from my previous post.


“Seaweed” is not a weed, and isn’t exclusively found in the sea.
The name “weed” implies seaweed is a fast growing nuisance plant. Although it is relatively fast growing and can be a nuisance to us at times, seaweeds are actually classified as algae – photosynthetic organisms which, with the exception of the green species, is only remotely related to land plants.

Although they are most prolific in salt water, they can be found in both marine and brackish environments like estuaries. A few have even been found inland-locked fresh water far from the sea.

Seaweed comes in three colours
Brown, green and red. From a creative person’s perspective this description is a bit simplistic because there definitely some that are coloured blue, purple, yellow, black and white but scientists group them into brown, green and red because, colour aside, the three groups differ from one another in profound ways – their pigments, reproduction, life histories and evolutionary backgrounds.

Often white on seaweed is a sign of stressed seaweed, as I found out by keeping it out of it’s normal environment too long.

Seaweeds don’t have roots, flowers, fruits or cones
Although they often look like plants, the different parts of seaweed do not have the same specialist roles that the leaves, roots, trunks and stems of plants do. Many parts of a seaweed can perform the tasks of nutrient absorption and photosynthesis to some degree. They have no special cells for the transport of water or nutrients.

The root-like structures that connect the algae to the seabed are called holdfasts. Roots on land plants draw nutrients from the ground but most of the outer layer of a seaweed can absorb nutrients from the water. Some algae lives free-floating with no permanent attachment at all.

Some algae have evolved floats and long stems to place parts of it closer to the light allowing it to survive in deeper water. The deepest recorded seaweed in New Zealand has been found in the deep clear waters of the Kermadec region at 200m.

They come in all sizes.
There are about 900 known species of seaweed in the New Zealand region with many more likely to be discovered. Due to our unique geographic location many are endemic.

They vary in form and size considerably, from the microscopic to forests of massive kelp as tall as giant redwood trees. Some can grow up to half a metre a day.

In general terms the warmer the water, the smaller they tend to grow, as I discovered when I tried to find seaweed in Wellington that also grows in the Kermadec region and found the only one in common was really quite tiny. Conversely Dr Wendy Nelson from Niwa said the kelp in Antarctica can grow to truly impressive size.

Although some occur throughout mainland New Zealand there are distinctive northern and southern species. In particular those found from the northeastern  North Island to Bay of Plenty differ markedly from that growing south of Kaikoroura.

Seaweed is important
It has a vital role in the environment. Many fish and invertebrates find refuge and habitat in algal beds. Kelps in particular are known to be very productive in terms of the carbon dioxide they fix.

Although some seaweeds are eaten directly by herbivorous fishes, or by invertebrate grazers such as pāua and kina, much of the productivity of the seaweeds enters the food chain indirectly. The mucilages and, slimes and films produced by algae is ideal food for bacteria, fungi and various protozoans, which in turn are eaten by filter feeders. Fragments of seaweed broken free by the sea swell break down to be consumed by a wide range of organisms. Beach-cast seaweeds may be annoying when you sunbathe but they provide valuable nutrients for coastal food chains as many gardeners will testify to.

We use seaweed for much more than fertilizers or soil conditioners. They are used in a wide range of products including scientific agar gels, ice cream, cosmetics, medicines, fabric dyes, and of course food – in Japan for instance, it constitutes up to 10% of the average diet.

UK based company Seaweed & Co is a good read for more on the commercial use of algae


Some of my seaweed storage and water transport madness

Keeping seaweed happy while photographing it
Seaweed varies in it’s robustness and ability to stand up to different conditions. Some can survive quite a while out of the water or even short bursts in fresh water but in general terms it is best to keep it in seawater as much as possible. Changing the water daily provides vital nutrients and I used a ‘bubble stone’ from a fish tank to stop the water becoming stagnant.

During the day all seaweed requires light and carbon dioxide to photosynthesize (producing oxygen). They also respire day and night producing carbon dioxide.

To play it safe I kept them out of direct sun to stop them getting ‘burnt’. Some lasted for many days while others deteriorated after a day or so.

Seaweeds by David Thomas. ISBN: 0-565-09175-1
NZ Seaweeds an illustrated guide by Dr Wendy Nelson. ISBN: 978-0-9876688-1-3

Thanks to Wendy Nelson for her conversation, time and patience in supporting this project.

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